Mobile Phone Battery & Car Battery

Mobile Phone Battery & Car Battery

Mobile Phone Battery & Car Battery

Current lithium Ion battery is used for two fields. One is electric car, the other one is 3C products. 3C products are kinds of household appliances. The most extensive needs of the lithium ion battery are mobile phone which is a massive demand for people.

In terms of technological progress, The batteries for cars & mobile phones are similar in technology and are now mainstream lithium ion batteries. But cars are more concerned about the ratio of energy to weight. Adding a little space has little effect on electric cars, which is a difference between the lithium ion battery of the mobile phone and the cars. The weight of the lithium ion battery weight in the cars will seriously affect the endurance of electric cars, and it has a time limit. Generally, it is 5-10 years; the mobile phone is more concerned with the ratio of energy to volume because it is small. The weight is slightly heavier than acceptable, but the mobile phone is too large to be convenient to use.

The lithium ion battery of mobile phone maintained at 600Wh/L. The energy density is higher than we saw. There are so many apps in cells nowadays, with high demands for energy consumption, the energy density of lithium ion batteries for mobile phone is higher than that of cars. At the meanwhile, fast charging is also a significant point. It needs to sacrifice the cycles life to improve energy density, which means that after using 1-2 years, the battery capacity will reduce.

But the electric cars can not improve energy density by sacrificing life cycles; it needs to be considered more comprehensive, safety, temperature range, and lithium ion battery cycles life. The lithium ion battery of the electric car should avoid fire and explosion under extreme conditions. The technological of the cars grows so slow because that needs 3000 times cycles life but also needs to maintain better output power in lower temperatures and higher temperature environments.

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What’s the graphene battery?

What’s the graphene battery?

What’s the graphene battery?

Graphene Battery is a new development prospect of lithium battery which we keep paying more attention the technology of graphene battery.

 

The advantages of graphene in lithium batteries

Graphene plays a role in enhancing the heat dissipation in the lithium cell, rather than adding graphene to the positive and negative electrodes of the lithium cell, so the graphene in this battery does not increase the charge and discharge rate, nor can it increase the energy density, nor enhance the conductivity. It is a lithium battery. For example, Huawei has produced a heat dissipation improved lithium battery. The graphene layer achieves the heat dissipation.

Why the lithium battery should enhance heat dissipation?

Is it to enhance heat dissipation when the mobile phone chip is fully loaded? No, what is the temperature of the mobile phone, and the full-load running time of the mobile phone chip accounts for less than 1% of the mobile phone’s use time. Mobile phones and other civilian electronic devices are typical applications at low temperatures, and ordinary lithium batteries do not require additional It can be improved. However, the temperature in some places is high. For example, the base station near the equator has a backup battery operating environment of 50°C. This temperature is on the verge of collapse for ordinary lithium batteries. In the past, only a more substantial capacity battery on the scalp could meet the requirements of the number of charge and discharge cycles. The effect of temperature on the battery is mainly to accelerate the evaporation of water in the electrolyte. In this Huawei battery, the water wholly removed from the electrolyte formula and the graphene heat dissipation layer used. The heat generated when the battery charged and discharged is more comfortable to export. Huawei gave a set of performance data, that is, the capacity after 2,000 cycles of charging and discharging at 60°C is still maintained at 70%, and the storage at an ambient temperature of 60°C for 200 days, the capacity loss is less than 13%.

Development Prospect of Graphene Battery

This data may not be what people in the lithium battery industry do not know how strong. If we put the general mobile phone battery at this ambient temperature, that is, 60℃, most of them will not work correctly. Because the lithium batteries of mobile phones are mostly ternary materials, the energy density is large, but they are not suitable for working at high temperatures. There is a lithium iron phosphate battery that can operate at high temperatures, but this rarely appears in mobile phone batteries. And the lithium iron phosphate battery is also a battery with a lot of cycles. For example, a lithium battery that can be recharged and discharged 2500 times, at average, will drop to 300 times at 60°C. Huawei can also maintain for 2000 times. Also, storage batteries at high temperatures will cause electrolyte loss. Generally, lithium iron phosphate placed at 60°C for seven months, and the capacity loss is 40%-50%. Not surprising, but Huawei only loses 13%.

Application:Due to the high conductivity, high strength, ultra-thin and thin characteristics, and the features of very high-performance improvement at high temperatures, The graphene batteries can be used not only in base stations, but also in uncrewed aerial vehicles, aerospace military industry, or new energy vehicles and other potential applications will also play an important role.

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Flexible Lithium Battery Technology

Flexible Lithium Battery Technology

Flexible Lithium Battery Technology

More and more products have become flexible, and as an essential accessory, the lithium battery also needs to be flexible. We never stop improving the technology and production process on our flexible lithium battery from design to mass production.

In 2015, the flexible lithium battery market was still tiny with 50 million US dollars, but it is expected to reach the market of 617 million US dollars by 2020. The growth rate of flexible is always speedy. Because no matter what kind of electronic products, it can not bypass the lithium battery. Among the providers of flexible batteries, Samsung and LG have their plastic lithium battery parts.

Samsung SDI

Samsung’s flexible lithium battery is called Samsung SDI. It is now a foldable 210mAh lithium battery, which is mostly used in wearable devices. The thickness of the lithium battery itself can be 0.3mm thick and can be carried on the wrist of a person. Ten thousand times of bending and folding, and without any failure, so the reliability of this lithium battery is still very high.

A particularly significant advantage for companies like Samsung is that it has already achieved mass production of advanced technology. It is something that our industrial developers cannot ignore and must pay attention to Only advanced technology is useless. If you cannot achieve high-quality, stable mass production, advanced technology cannot be pushed to society.

LG Chem

LG has a product called LG Chem, which means LG Chemical. Its lithium battery is particularly impressive. It is a hexagonal lithium battery that can reach 2500 mAh. In other words, it can even power a mobile phone. It also has another lithium battery called a ribbon, which wraps the lithium battery in something like a shoelace and knots it. It can still be used. So you see, LG also has its characteristics.

Panasonic

It also has its lithium battery, and its battery power supply is not abundant, from 17.5mAh to 60mAh, which is still some distance away from Samsung, but there is no problem with wearable.

BrightVolt

BrightVolt was founded in Florida in 1998, it has received more than $80 million in financing. What done is a small lithium battery of 14-35mAh.

Imprint Energy

The critical point is to talk about Imprint Energy. It was founded in California in 2010 and has so far received $15 million in investment, marking it is not now from maturity. It is worth noting that this company was founded by a great Chinese scientist Christine Ho and is a graduate of Berkeley.

Each product has an R&D cycle of 5-8 years, and it has now passed six years. In 2015, it was rated as one of the 50 smartest companies in the world by MIT Technology Review. In 2016, the CEO was rated by the

MIT Technology Review as 35 outstanding talents under the age of 35 in the world. So although this company has not been able to mass-produce, it is not far from mass-production.

Blue Spark Technologies

Blue Spark was founded in Ohio in 2003, it has already invested more than 20 million USD. It is characterized by the technology obtained from daily use dry lithium battery manufacturers and then made into commercialization.

TempTraq products

One of the most accessible areas for flexible electronics is to stick it on children for continuous temperature monitoring. If the child attaches this device, it will continue to monitor the temperature of the child and send the report to your mobile app If you set an alarm function and your child has a fever in the middle of the night, the phone will wake you up. If the traditional enterprise is too traditional, if you want to incubate an innovative enterprise, the whole mechanism cannot be supported, so it is best to turn it into an external startup company. Blue Spark Technologies has chosen to do so. TempTraq can detect children’s body temperature

Enfucell

It was founded in Finland in 2012 and now has more than 300,000 US dollars in crowdfunding. It has many technical indicators that are still very popular with everyone. You can also pay attention to it. From a global perspective, there are four major parts of the flexible electronic region, of which the display and the sensor are the leading ones, and the other two parts of the battery and the printed circuit board cooperate to form a market. There is a lot of room for development in the future, especially in the next year, there will be a lot of products that everyone can perceive, so it is very worthy of attention.


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UL2054 Certification for LiPo Battery

UL2054 Certification for LiPo Battery

UL2054 Certification for LiPo Battery

UL2054 Certification Scope

1.1 UL2054 certification requirements cover portable primary (non-rechargeable) and secondary (rechargeable) LiPo Battery for use as a power supply in goods. These LiPo Battery consist of either a single electrochemical cell or two or more LiPo cells connected in parallels or series, or both, that convert chemical energy into electrical energy by chemical reaction.


1.2 UL2054 certification requirements intend to reduce the risk of explosion or fire when LiPo Battery are working in a device. The proper use of these LiPo Battery in a particular application is dependent on their use in a complete product that complies with the requirements applicable to such a product.


1.3 UL2054 certification requirements are intended to cover LiPo Battery for general use. They do not include the combination of the LiPo Battery and the host product, which are covered by specifications in the host product standard.


1.4 UL2054 certification requirements are also intended to reduce the risk of injury to persons due to fire or explosion when LiPo Battery are removed from a product to be transported, stocked, or discarded.


1.5 UL2054 certification requirements do not cover the toxicity risk that results from the ingestion of a LiPo Battery or its contents, nor the risk of injury to somebody that occurs if a LiPo Battery is open to provide access to its contents.


The General of UL2054 Certification

2.1.1 Instead of the UL2054 certification requirements outlined in table 6.1, LiPo cells constructed of lithium metal, lithium alloy, or LiPo that are used in batteries shall meet the conditions in the standard for LiPo Battery UL 1642.


2.2 Units of measurement


2.3 Terminology


2.4 Components


2.4.1 Except as indicated in 2.4.2, a component of a product covered by this standard shall comply with UL2054 certification requirements for the element. See appendix for a list of rules covering parts used in the products covered by this UL2054 standard.


2.4.2 A component is not required to comply with a specific requirement that: Involves a feature or characteristic not needed for the application of the element in the product covered by UL2054 standard or is superseded by a condition in UL2054 standard.


2.4.3 A component shall be used following its rating established for the intended conditions of use.


2.4.4 Specific parts are incomplete in construction features or restricted in performance capabilities. The components are intended for use only under limited conditions, such as certain temperatures not exceeding specified limits, and shall be used only under those specific conditions.


Glossary of UL2054 Certification

4.1.1 The casing of a LiPo cell or single-cell battery, or the enclosure of a lithium polymer battery pack shall have the strength and rigidity required to resist the possible abuses, that it is exposed to during its intended use, in order to reduce the risk of fire or injury to persons.


4.1.2 The casing of a LiPo Battery pack shall be rigid enough to prevent flexing. A tool providing the construction advantage of pliers, screwdriver, hacksaw, or similar device, shall be the minimum automated capability required to open the casing.


4.1.3 For LiPo Battery packs with plastic outer enclosures, the external ring of the battery shall be designed such that it is not capable of being opened using simple tools, such as a screwdriver. The enclosure shall be ultrasonically welded or secured by equivalent means. Adhesives complying with the adhesive requirements of the Standard for Polymeric Materials – Use in Electrical Equipment Evaluations, UL 746C, single-use, or tamper-proof screws are considered equivalent means.


4.1.4 The outer case body of the LiPo Battery shall be classed as V-1 or less flammable in the minimum part thickness under the Standard for Polymeric Materials — Use in Electrical Equipment Evaluations, UL 746C.


Exception: Materials are not required to be classed as V-1 or less flammable when they comply with the Enclosure Flammability – 20 mm (3/4 inch) Flame test specified in the Standard for Polymeric Materials– Use in Electrical Equipment Evaluations, UL 746C.


4.1.5 Openings in LiPo Battery pack enclosures shall minimize to prevent damage to LiPo cells, connections, and internal circuitry and too short of electrical spacings within the LiPo Battery pack. Enclosure openings shall not be located over LiPo cells that do not comply with the rigid casing requirements of 4.1.2 or overprotective circuitry and connections where damage or shorting from debris entering the enclosure could result in a hazard.


4.2 Electrolyte


4.2.1 A LiPo cell shall not contain pressurized vapor or liquid that expels materials forcibly when the LiPo Battery casing is punctured with a grinding wheel under laboratory conditions at a temperature of 23 ±2°C (73±3.6°F). 


4.3 External LiPo Battery Pack Connectors


4.3.1 An external LiPo Battery pack connector shall be constructed to prevent unpremeditated short-circuiting of its terminals unless the pack meets the limited power supply requirements of the Limited Power Source Test, Section 13. Examples of methods to avoid inadvertent short-circuiting include recessing the terminals, providing circuitry that prevents inadvertent short-circuiting, providing covers over the terminals, use of keyed connectors, and the like.


4.3.2 Insulating material for external battery pack connectors, outside the enclosure, shall have a V-2 minimum flame rating unless the pack meets the limited power source requirements of the Limited Power Source Test, Section 13. External connectors forming part of the fire enclosure shall be V-1 minimum.


4.4 Printed wiring boards


4.4.1 Printed wiring boards positioning LiPo Battery circuit components shall be rated V-1 minimum


4.5 LiPo systems only


4.5.1 The voltage of each LiPo cell or each cellblock consisting of parallel-connected plural cells should not exceed the upper limit of the charging voltage specified by the battery manufacturer.


4.5.2 For the LiPo  consisting of a single cell or a separate cellblock, it should be confirmed that the charging voltage of the cell does not exceed the upper limit of the charging voltage specified by the battery manufacturer.


4.5.3 For the LiPo Battery consisting of series-connected single cells or series-connected cellblocks, it should be confirmed that the voltages of any one of the individual cells or single cellblocks does not exceed the upper limit of the charging voltage, specified by the cell manufacturer, by monitoring the energy of every single cell or the single cellblocks.


 4.5.4 Compliance for 4.5.1 – 4.5.3 can be achieved through analysis of the LiPo Battery protection circuit or, if unable to determine through analysis, then through monitoring values during the test of Section 13A.

Performance


Performance of UL2054 Certification

5.1 LiPo Battery are to be tested as described in Sections 9 through 24. Section 12, Forced-Discharge Test, is applicable only to LiPo cells intended to be used in multi-cell series applications, such as LiPo Battery packs. The Battery Enclosure Tests, Sections 18 — 21 (including the 250 N Steady Force, Mold Stress Relief, and Drop Impact Tests) are intended only for batteries that have a plastic outer enclosure.


5.2 With the exclusion of the Projectile Test of Section 22, LiPo cells and batteries shall not explode or catch fire as a result of the tests in this standard. For the Shock Test, Section 16, Vibration Test, Section 17, 250 N Steady Force Test, Section 19, Mold Stress Relief Test, Section 20, Drop Impact Test, Section 21, and the Temperature Cycling Test, Section 24 the samples shall also not vent or leak. For these tests, unacceptable leakage is deemed to have occurred when the resulting mass loss exceeds the values shown in Table 5.1, Venting, and Leakage Mass Loss Criteria.


5.3 Deleted August 12, 2008


5.4 Certain end product devices require that the power output of a LiPo Battery be limited. The Limited Power Source Test described in Section 13 is to be used to determine whether a LiPo cell or battery is suitable in such applications where fire hazards may otherwise exist.

Samples of UL2054 Certification

6.1 Unless otherwise indicated, new LiPo cells or batteries in the fully charged state are to be used for the tests described in Sections 9 – 24. The test schedule and the number of samples to be used in each analysis are shown in Tables 6.1 and 6.2, for cell testing and battery pack testing, respectively.


6.2 When a LiPo Battery pack is tested in accordance with Table 6.2, the LiPo cells comprising that battery pack shall also be tested in accordance with Table 6.1 if they have not already been.


6.3 All LiPo Battery shall be wholly charged in accordance with the battery manufacturer’s specifications prior to testing except for the samples to be subjected to the Abnormal Charging and Abusive Overcharge Tests, which shall be discharged to the manufacturer specified endpoint voltage using the manufacturer specified current prior to testing.


Important Test Considerations of UL2054 Certification

7.1 As some LiPo Battery explode in the tests described in Sections 9 — 24, it is crucial that personnel be protected from the flying fragments, explosive force, sudden release of heat, chemical bums, and noise results from such explosions. The test field is to be well ventilated to protect the organization from possible harmful fumes or gases.


7.2 The temperatures on the surface of the LiPo Battery casings shall be monitored during the tests described in Sections 9, 10, 11, 14, and 15. All personnel involved in the testing of batteries are to be instructed never to approach a LiPo Battery until the surface temperature returns to ambient temperature.


7.3 The tests described in Section 22, Projectile Test, shall be conducted in a separate room or room equipped with an adequate safety barrier separating the test area from the observer.


Temperature Measurements of UL2054 Certification

8.1 Temperatures are to be contained by thermocouples consisting of wires not larger than 24 AWG (0.21 mm2) and not smaller than 30 AWG (0.05 mm2) and a potentiometer-type instrument.


8.2 The temperature measurements on the LiPo Battery are to be made with the measuring junction of the thermocouple held tightly against the outer casing of the battery.


Electrical Tests of UL2054 Certification

Short-Circuit Test

9.1 LiPo cells shall comply with 9.1 — 9.6.

(Underwriter Laboratories Inc. approved battery cell used in the EUT according to UL1642)


9.2 Each fully charged test LiPo cell, in turn, is to be short-circuited by connecting the positive and negative terminals of the battery with a circuit load having a resistance load of 80 ± 20 mohm. The temperature of the LiPo Battery case is to be recorded during the test. The LiPo Battery is to discharge until a fire or explosion is obtained, or until it has reached an unloaded state of fewer than 0.2 volts and the case temperature has returned to ±10°C (±18°F) of ambient temperature.


9.3 Tests are to be transferred at 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F), and at 55 ± 2°C (131 ± 4°F). The LiPo cells are to reach equilibrium at 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F) or 55 ± 2°C (131 ± 4°F) as applicable, before the terminals are connected.


9.4 A LiPo cell is to be tested individually unless the battery manufacturer indicates that it is intended for use in series or parallel. For series or parallel use, additional tests on five sets of LiPo Battery are to be conducted using the maximum number of LiPo cells to be covered for each configuration as specified by the battery manufacturer.


9.5 A LiPo cell is to be tested without the assistance of protective devices unless such protective mechanisms are integral to the LiPo cell construction. When a protective device actuates during the test, the test shall be repeated with the LiPo cell connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective equipment to open.


9.6 The LiPo Battery shall not explode or catch fire. The temperature of the exterior cell or battery casing shall not exceed 150°C (302°F) for lithium chemistries. °C


9.7 LiPo Battery packs shall comply with 9.8 —9.12.

 Exception: LiPo Battery packs consisting of a single cell, in which the cell has already been subjected to the tests in 9.1 – 9.6 need not be submitted to the standards in 9.8 – 9.12


9.8 Each fully charged test LiPo Battery pack, in turn, is to be short-circuited by connecting the positive and negative terminals of the battery with a circuit load having a resistance load of 80 ± 20 m ohm. The temperature of the LiPo Battery case is to be recorded during the test. The LiPo Battery is to discharge until a fire or explosion is obtained, or until it is completely released and the cell case temperature has returned to ±10°C (±18°F) of ambient temperature.


9.9 Tests are to be transferred at 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F) and at 55 ± 5°C (131 ± 4°F). The LiPo Battery are to reach steadiness at 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F) or 55 ± 5°C (131 ± 4°F), as applicable, before the terminals are joined.


9.10 LiPo Battery pack constructions are to be subjected to a single fault across any protective device in the load circuit of the battery under test. When protective materials actuate during the trial, the examination shall be repeated with the LiPo Battery pack connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective devices to open.


Exception: A positive temperature coefficient device which complies with the tests specified in Standard for Thermistor-Type Devices, UL 1434, the Standard for Automatic Electrical Controls for Household and Similar Use, Part 1: General Requirements, UL 60730-1A, or other protective devices determined to be reliable, may remain in the circuit without being faulted. See Appendix A for additional component standards.


9.11 One of the above five test sample LiPo Battery packs, tested at 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F) shall be evaluated with the following additional conditions in place. The terminals are to be subjected to a short circuit condition with a minimum length of 16 AWG (1.3 mm2) bare copper wire. The test is to be conducted on a tissue paper covered softwood surface, and the sample battery pack and exposed leader is to be covered with a single layer of cheesecloth.


9.12 For all samples tested, the LiPo Battery shall not explode or catch fire, and the tests shall not result in chemical leaks caused by cracking, rupturing, or bursting of the cell casing. The temperature of the internal cell casings shall not exceed 150°C (302°F) for lithium chemistries. For battery pack samples tested in accordance with 9.11, the cheesecloth and tissue paper shall not catch fire.


Abnormal Charging Test of UL2054 Certification

10.1 Primary LiPo Battery (for example, LiPo cells, single LiPo Battery, or LiPo Battery packs) shall comply with 10.2 –10.5 (Secondary LiPo Battery pack).


10.2 LiPo Battery discharged to the battery manufacturer’s estimated capacity are to be used for this test. The LiPo Battery are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F).


10.3 Each wholly discharged test sample battery is to be subjected to a charging current of three times the current lc, designated by the battery manufacturer, by connecting it in opposition to a dc-power supply. The test time is to be calculated using the formula: in which it is the charging time in an hour. C is the capacity of the LiPo cell /LiPo Battery in ampere-hours, and lc is the maximum charging current, in amperes, particularized by the battery manufacturer. The minimum charging time is to be 7 hours.

 Exception: At the battery manufacturer’s preference, test currents more significant than the specified three times rated Ic can be applied to expedite the test timeframe, with the minimum charging times as seven hours.


10.4 When a protective device that has been examined for the purpose, actuates during the test, the test shall be repeated with the battery supply connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective device to open. Protective equipment that has not been investigated for the purpose shall be short-circuited.


10.5 The LiPo Battery shall not explode or catch fire. For LiPo Battery pack samples, tests shall not result in chemical leaks caused by cracking, rupturing, or bursting of the series casing.


10.6 Secondary LiPo cells shall comply with 10.7 – 10.9 (Underwriter Laboratories Inc. approved battery cell used in the EUT according to UL1642)


10.7 The LiPo cells are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F). Each LiPo Battery shall be discharged at a constant current of 0.2 C/1 hours, to a manufacturer specified discharge endpoint voltage.


10.8 The LiPo cells are to be charged with a constant maximum specified charger output voltage and a current limit of three times the maximum current Ic, particularized by the battery manufacturer. Charging duration is the time required to reach the manufacturer’s specified end-of-charge condition plus seven further hours.


10.9 A LiPo cell is to be tested without the assistance of protective devices unless such protective mechanisms are either integral to the cell constructions or have been investigated for the purpose. A piece of re-settable protective equipment that actuates during the test shall be allowed to reset, and the examination shall be resumed, cycling as often as necessary to complete the test. When a protective device operates during the test (whether re-settable or not), the test is repeated with the same charging time, but with the LiPo cell connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective devices to operate. A piece of protective equipment that is not integral to the cell, and that has not been investigated for the purpose is to be short-circuited.


10.10 Secondary LiPo Battery packs shall comply with 10.11 — 10.13.

10.11 The LiPo Battery are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20±5°C (68±9°F). A thermocouple is to be attached to the LiPo cells of each test sample battery. Each LiPo Battery shall be discharged at a constant current of 0.2C/1 hour, to a manufacturer specified discharge endpoint voltage.


10.12 Each of the test sample batteries are to be subjected to the following overcharge states, in sequential order. a) The LiPo Battery is to be initially charged using a constant current charging mode with a current limit of three times the highest current Ic, particularized by the battery manufacturer until the maximum specified charger output voltage is reached. At that point, the LiPo Battery is to be charged with a constant maximum specified charger output voltage and a current limit of three times the maximum current Ic. Charging duration is the time required to reach the manufacturer’s specified end-of-charge condition plus seven additional hours. The temperature on the LiPo cell casing shall be monitored. A re-settable protective device such as a PTC that actuates during the test shall be allowed to reset, and the examination shall be resumed, cycling as often as necessary, but no less than ten times, to complete the test. Automatic reset devices are allowed to cycle during the trial. When an overcurrent protective device operates during the trial, the test is repeated with the same charging time, but with the battery connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective devices to operate. b) The charge condition in accordance with (a) shall be conducted with each single component fault that is likely to occur in the charging circuit and which would result in overcharging of the battery. Exception No. 1: A protective device determined to be reliable may remain in the loop without being faulted. See 2.4 and Appendix A. Exception No. 2: For batteries without protective devices, the overcharge condition(s) in (b) does not apply.


10.13 The LiPo Battery shall not explode or catch fire. For LiPo Battery pack samples, tests shall not result in chemical leaks caused by cracking, rupturing, or bursting of the internal cell casing.

Abusive Overcharge Test of UL2054 Certificaiton

(Underwriter Laboratories Inc. approved LiPo Battery cell used in the EUT according to UL1642)


11.1 The LiPo Battery are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).


11.2 LiPo Battery are to be subjected to a continuous charging current at ten times the C5 amp rate, using a supply voltage satisfactory to maintain the ten times C5 amp rate throughout the duration of the test. During the trial, the temperature is to be marked on the internal cell casing of each sample. The test is to continue until the LiPo cell or battery explodes, vents, or a single operation protective device operates, and the temperature of the internal cell casing reaches steady-state requirements or returns to ambient. If a PTC or other re-settable protection device works during the test, it is to be reset a minimum of 10 times during the trial. An automatic reset device is allowed to cycle during the trial.


11.3 During the tests, LiPo Battery supplied with protective devices shall be subjected to a single part fault using any individual fault condition, which is likely to occur in the charging circuit and which would result in overcharging of the LiPo Battery.

Exception: Protective devices determined to be reliable, may remain in the circuit without being faulted. See Appendix A.


11.4 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.


11.5 At least one of the five LiPo Battery shall be subjected to the test outlined in 11.2 and 11.3 with a constant current charge five times the C5 rate (for example: at the C rate) with a supply voltage sufficient to maintain that rate throughout the duration of the test


Forced-Discharge Test of UL2054 Certification


12.1 This test is intended for LiPo cells that are to be used in multi-cell applications, such as LiPo Battery packs. The LiPo Battery are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).


12.2 For multi-cell series configurations without parallel strings, a wholly discharged cell is to be force-discharged by connecting it in series with fully charged batteries of the same kind. The quantity of entirely charged cells to be connected in series with the discharged cell is to equal the total number of cells in the pack less one.


12.3 For multi-cell series arrangements with parallel strings, a wholly discharged identical line is to be force-discharged by connecting it in series with entirely charged cells of the same kind. The quantity of wholly charged cells to be connected in series with the discharged parallel string is to equal the total number of cells in the pack less the number of cells in the discharged parallel line.


12.4 Each of the five battery packs shall be prepared as described in 12.2 or 12.3, as applicable.


12.5 Once the completely discharged cells (or string of cells) are connected in series with the specified number of fully charged cells, and the resultant battery pack is to be short-circuited.


12.6 The positive and negative terminals of the sample are to be connected with copper wire with a resistance load of 80 ± 20 m ohms. The battery is to discharge until a fire or explosion is obtained, or until it has reached a completely discharged state and the cell case temperature has returned to ±10°C (±18°F) of ambient temperature.


12.7 During the tests, LiPo Battery supplied with protective devices shall be subjected to a single component fault using any single fault condition, which is likely to occur in the discharge circuit and which would result in excessive discharge of the battery.

 Exception: A positive temperature coefficient device which complies with the applicable tests specified in the Standard for Thermistor-Type Devices, UL 1434 and the Standard for Automatic Electrical Controls for Household and Similar Use, Part 1: General Requirements, UL 60730-1A, or other protective devices determined to be reliable, may remain in the circuit without being faulted. See Appendix A for additional component standards.


12.8 The LiPo Battery shall not explode or catch fire.


Limited Power Source Test of UL2054 Certification

13.1 The LiPo Battery are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).


13.2 A LiPo Battery intended to be a limited power source shall comply with one of the following:

 a) The output is constitutionally limited in compliance with Table 13.1, or b) A linear or nonlinear impedance limits the output in compliance with Table 13.1. If a positive temperature coefficient equipment is used, it shall:

 1) Comply with the Standard for Thermistor-Type Devices, UL 1434, or 2) Pass the tests particularized in the Manufacturing Deviation and Drift Section, the Endurance Section, and the Manufacturing Deviation and Drift Section and the Endurance Section in the Annex for Requirements for Controls Using Thermistors of the Standard for Automatic Electrical Controls for Household and Similar Use, Part 1: General Requirements, UL 60730-1; or 3) Meet the requirements in the Standard for Automatic Electrical Controls for Household and Similar Use, Part 1: General Requirements, UL 60730-1 for a device for type 2.AL Action; c) A regulating network or an integrated protection circuit (IC) current limiter, limit the output in compliance with table 13.1, both under normal operating conditions and after any single simulated fault in the regulating network or IC current limiter (open circuit or short circuit); or d) An overcurrent protective device is used, and the output is limited in compliance with Table 13.2.


13.3 Where an overcurrent protective device is used, it shall be a fuse or a non-adjustable, no auto-reset, electromechanical equipment.


13.4 LiPo Battery shall be fully charged when conducting the measurements for Uoc ISC, and S according to Tables 13.1 and 13.2.


13.5 The non-capacitive load referenced in Tables 13.1 and 13.2 shall be adjusted to develop maximum measured values of current (Isc) and power (S) that can be obtained over the time limits noted in Tables 13.1 and 13.2. Simulated faults in a regulating network required according to 13.2 items (c) above are applied under these load conditions.


13.6 LiPo atteries that meet the limited power supply requirements may be marked “Limited Power Source” “LPS” to indicate that they are considered to be a limited power source. LiPo Battery that do not meet these requirements, regardless of terminal design, shall not be marked to indicate that they are a limited power supply and are assigned to applications where a limited power source is not required.


13A LiPo Pack Component Temperature Test

13A.1 A LiPo Battery pack with enclosure shall be subjected to a regular temperature test under both input (charging) and output (discharging) conditions. As a result of this testing, temperatures on temperature-sensitive components shall not exceed the limits outlined in table 13A.1


13A.2 For the output loading temperature test, a wholly charged LiPo Battery pack, shall be subjected to a constant resistive loading across the output terminals of the LiPo Battery pack with the output load current set to just below the operating limit of the discharging protection circuit. Temperatures are monitored until thermal stabilization or until the pack is at its specified endpoint voltage, whichever comes first.


13A.3 The input loading temperature test shall be conducted on a fully discharged battery pack, discharged at a constant current of 0.2C/1 hour to a manufacturer specified discharge endpoint voltage.


13A.4 For the input loading temperature test, a wholly discharged LiPo Battery shall be subjected to a CCCV charging method with the maximum charging voltage not to exceed the battery manufacturer’s suggested maximum charging voltage limits. During the test, the charging current shall not exceed three times the maximum charge current or the operating limit of the charging protection circuit, whichever is less, during the test. Temperatures are monitored until thermal stabilization or until the pack is at its fully charged state, whichever comes first.


13A.5 Temperatures are considered to be stabilized when three progressive readings are taken at intervals of 10 percent of the previously elapsed duration of the test, but not less than 15 minutes, indicate no further increase.


13A.6 Protective devices within the LiPo Battery pack shall not operate during the test.


13A.7 Temperatures are monitored on surfaces of parts using thermocouples. Thermocouples are to consist of 30 AWG wires. Larger size wires may be used, but they shall not exceed 24 AWG and shall not be big enough to result in a heat sink condition on the part under test.


13A.8 During the normal temperature test, temperature measurement T shall not exceed (Tmax + Tamb-Tma).


13B LiPo Battery Pack Surface Temperature Test


13B.1 A LiPo Battery pack with enclosure shall be subjected to a regular temperature test under both input (charging) and output (discharging) conditions.


13B.2 For the output loading temperature test, a fully charged LiPo Battery pack, shall be subjected to a constant resistive loading across the output terminals of the LiPo Battery pack with the output load current set to just below the operating limit of the discharging protection circuit. Temperatures are monitored until thermal stabilization or until the pack is at its specified endpoint voltage, whichever comes first.


13B.3 The input loading temperature test shall be conducted on a fully discharged LiPo Battery pack, discharged at a constant current of 0.2C/1 hour to a battery manufacturer specified discharge endpoint voltage.


13B.4 For the input loading temperature test, a fully discharged LiPo Battery shall be subjected to a CCCV charging method with the maximum charging voltage not to exceed the battery manufacturer’s recommended maximum charging voltage limits. During the test, the charging current shall not exceed three times the maximum charge current or the operating limit of the charging protection circuit, whichever is less, during the test. Temperatures are monitored until thermal stabilization or until the pack is at its wholly charged state, whichever comes first.


13B.5 Temperatures are considered to be stabilized when three successive readings are taken at intervals of 10 percent of the previously elapsed duration of the test, but not less than 15 minutes, indicate no further increase.


13B.6 Protective devices within the LiPo Battery pack shall not operate during the test.


13B.7 Temperatures are monitored on the accessible surfaces of the pack enclosure using thermocouples. Thermocouples are to consist of 30 AWG wires. Larger size wires may be used, but they shall not exceed 24 AWG.


13B.8 During the regular temperature test, temperature measurement T shall not exceed (Tmax + Tamb − Tma)

Mechanical Test of UL2054 Certification


Crush Test 

The component LiPo cell has approved by Underwriter Laboratories Inc., according to UL1642.

14.1 The LiPo Battery are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).


14.2 A LiPo Battery is to be crushed between two flat surfaces. The force for the crushing is to be applied by a hydraulic ram or a similar force device. The flat surfaces are to be brought in contact with the cells, and the crushing is to be continued until an applied force of 13 ± 1.0 KN (3000 ± 224 pounds) is reached. Once the highest force has been obtained, it is to be released.


14.3 A cylindrical or prismatic LiPo Battery is to be crushed with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surfaces of the crushing apparatus. A prismatic LiPo Battery is also to be rotated 90 degrees around its longitudinal axis so that both the wide and narrow sides will be subjected to the crushing force. Each LiPo Battery is to be subjected to a crushing force in only one direction. Separate samples are to be used for each test.


14.4 A coin or button LiPo Battery is to be crushed with the flat surface of the battery parallel with the flat surfaces of the crushing apparatus.


14.5 The LiPo Battery shall not explode or catch fire.


Impact Test of UL2054 Certification

The component LiPo cell has approved by Underwriter Laboratories Inc., according to UL1642.

15.1 The LiPo Battery are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).


15.2 A test sample LiPo Battery is to be placed on a flat surface. A 15.8 mm (518 inches) diameter bar is to be located across the center of the sample. A 9.1 ±0.46 kg (20 ±1 pound) weight is to be dropped from a height of 610 ±25 mm (24 ±1 inch) onto the sample.


15.3 A barrel-shaped or prismatic battery is to be impacted with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surface and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a 15.8 mm (5/8 inch) diameter curved surface lying across the center of the test sample. A prismatic battery is also to be rotated 90 degrees around its longitudinal axis so that both the wide and narrow sides will be subjected to the impact. Each sample LiPo Battery is to be subjected to only a single impact. Separate samples are to be used for each test.


15.4 A coin or button LiPo Battery is to be impacted with the fiat surface of the test sample parallel to the flat surface and the 15.8 mm (5/8 inch) diameter curved surface lying across its center.


15.5 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.


Shock Test of UL2054 Certification

The component LiPo cell has approved by Underwriter Laboratories Inc., according to UL1642.


16.1 The lithium-cell is to be secured to the testing machine by means of a rigid mount that supports all mounting surfaces of the cell. Each cell shall be subjected to a total of three shocks of equal greatness. The shocks are to be applied in each of three mutually vertical directions unless it has only two tomahawks of symmetry, in which case only two directions shall be tested. Each shock is to be applied in a direction normal to the face of the cell. For each shock, the LiPo cell is to be accelerated in such a manner that during the initial three milliseconds, the minimum average acceleration is 75 g (where g is the local acceleration due to gravity). The peak acceleration shall be between 125 and 175 g. The LiPo cells shall be tested at a temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).


16.2 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.


16.3 The sample shall be examined 6 hours after testing and shall not vent or leak as described in 5.2.

Vibration Test of UL2054 certification

The component LiPo cell has approved by Underwriter Laboratories Inc., according to UL1642.

17.1 The LiPo Battery are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).


17.2 A LiPo Battery is to be constrained to simple harmonic motion with an amplitude of 0.8 mm (0.03 inch) [1.6 mm (0.06 inch) total maximum excursion].


17.3 The recurrence is to be varied at the rate of 1 hertz per minute between 10 and 55 hertz and return in not less than 90 nor more than 100 minutes. The LiPo Battery is to be tested in three mutually perpendicular directions. For a LiPo Battery that has only two axes of symmetry, the LiPo Battery is to be tested perpendicular to each axis.


17.4 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.


17.5 The sample shall be examined 6 hours after testing and shall not vent or leak as described in 5.2.

LiPo Battery Enclosure Test


Vibration Test of UL2054 Certification


18.1 The LiPo Battery are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).


18.2 LiPo Battery with outer plastic enclosures shall be subordinated to the tests described in Sections 19, 20, and 21. LiPo Battery with outer enclosures made from materials other than plastic shall be subjected to the tests specified in Sections 19 and 21


250 N Steady Force Test of UL2054 Certification

19.1 The LiPo Battery are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).


19.2 External enclosures of the LiPo Battery pack are to be controlled to a steady force of 250 ±10 N (56 ±2 pounds-force) for a period of 5 seconds, applied in turn to the top, bottom and sides of the LiPo Battery pack enclosure by means of a suitable test tool providing contact over a circular plane surface 30 mm (1.2 inches) in diameter.


19.3 The LiPo Battery shall not explode or catch fire. The outer battery enclosure shall not crack to the extent that the LiPo cells or any protective devices are exposed. Openings in the enclosure created as a result of the application of the 250 N steady force shall meet the standards of 4.1.5


19.4 The LiPo Battery shall be examined 6 hours after testing and shall not vent or leak as described in 5.2.


Mold Stress Relief Test of UL2054

20.1 Each of the three LiPo Battery is to be placed in a full-draft circulating-air oven maintained at a uniform temperature of 70°C (1 58°F). The samples are to remain in the oven for 7 hours.

Exception: If the maximum temperature, T, recorded on the battery pack thermoplastic enclosure parts, obtained during the normal temperature test of Section 13A exceeds 60°C (140°F), then the oven temperature is to be maintained at a temperature equal to T + 10°C (50°F).


20.2 Deleted effective November 11, 2011

 20.2.1 To prevent hazards from overheating energized cells, samples shall either be fully discharged prior to conditioning or provided with ”dummy” cells, which are representative of the actual cells

20.3 After careful removal from the oven and after returning to room temperature following the conditioning described in 20.3, the samples shall show no evidence of mechanical damage that would result in damage to cells or protective circuitry. In addition, The battery enclosures shall not crack, warp, or melt to the extent that the cells or any protective devices are exposed. Openings in the enclosure created as a result of the conditioning shall meet the criteria of 4.1.5


Drop Impact Test of UL2054 Certification

21.1 The LiPo Battery are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F)

Exception: LiPo Battery packs operating plastic enclosures that are intended for use in 0°C (32°F) temperatures shall be conditioned for 3 hours at 0°C (or temperature specified if lower than 0°C) prior to conducting the drop test, which shall be transferred shortly after removing the samples from the cold conditioning.


21.2 Each of three samples is to be dropped from a height of 1 m (3.28 ft), so it strikes a concrete surface in the position that is most likely to produce the adverse results in 21.3. Each sample is to be dropped three times.


21.3 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.


21.4 The sample shall be examined 6 hours after testing and shall not vent or leak as described in 5.2, and the integrity of the protective devices shall be maintained.


21.5 The outer battery enclosure shall not decipher to the extent that cells or any protective devices are exposed. Openings in the enclosure created as a result of the drop impact(s) shall meet the criteria of 4.1.5

Fire Exposure Tests of UL2054


Projectile Test

The component LiPo cell has approved by Underwriter Laboratories Inc., according to UL1642.

22.1 When constrained to the test described in 22.2 — 22.5, no part of an exploding LiPo cell or LiPo Battery shall create a hole in the wire screen cage or penetrate the wire screen cage such that some or all of the cell or battery protrudes through the screen cage.


22.2 Each test sample cell or battery is to be placed on a screen that covers a 102 mm (4 inches) diameter hole in the center of a platform table. The screen is to be constructed of a steel wire mesh having 20 openings per inch (25.4 mm) and a wire diameter of 0.43 mm (0.017 inches.


22.3 The screen is to be mounted 38 mm (1-1/2 inch) above a burner. The fuel and airflow rates are to be set to provide a bright blue flame that causes the supporting screen to glow a bright red.


22.4 An eight-sided covered wire cage, 610 mm (2 feet) across, and 305 mm (1 foot) high, made from metal screening, is to be placed over the test sample. See Figure 22.1. The metal screening is to be constructed from 0.25 mm (0.010 inches) diameter aluminum wire with 16— 18 wires per inch (25.4 mm> in each direction.


22.5 The sample is to be heated and shall remain on the screen until it explodes, or the cell or battery has ignited and burned out. It is not required to secure the sample in place unless it is at risk of falling off the screen before the test is completed. When required, the sample shall be secured to the screen with a single wire tied around the sample.


Precautions for safe handling

Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Avoid contact with skin, eyes, and clothing. Wear personal protective equipment.

Wash thoroughly after handling. Use this material with adequate ventilation.

The product is not explosive.

Environmental Tests of UL2054


Heating Test

The component LiPo cell has approved by Underwriter Laboratories Inc., according to UL1642.


23.1 The LiPo Battery shall not explode or catch fire when subjected to the test described in 23.2 — 23.4.


23.2 A LiPo Battery is to be heated in gravity convection or circulating air oven with an initial temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9° F).


23.3 The temperature of the oven is to be raised at a rate of 5 ±2°C (9 ±3.6° F) per minute to a temperature of 130 ±2°C (266 ±3.6°F) and remain at that temperature for 10 minutes.


23.4 The LiPo Battery shall return to room temperature (20 ±5°C) and then be examined.


Temperature Cycling Test

The component cell has approved by Underwriter Laboratories Inc., according to UL1642.


24.1 The LiPo Battery are to be placed in a test chamber and subjected to the following cycles: a) Raising the chamber-temperature to 70±3°C (158±5°F) within 30 minutes and maintaining this temperature for 4 hours. b) Reducing the chamber temperature to 20±3°C (68±5°F) within 30 minutes and maintaining this temperature for 2 hours. c) Reducing the chamber temperature to minus 40±3°C (minus 40±5°F) within 30 minutes and maintaining this temperature for 4 hours. d) Raising the chamber temperature to 20±3°C (68±5°F) within 30 minutes. e) Repeating the sequence for a further nine cycles. f) After the 10th cycle, storing the batteries for a minimum of 24 hours at 20±5°C (68±9°F) prior to examination.


24.2 The samples shall not explode or catch fire. In addition, the samples shall not vent or leak, as described in 5.2.


2️5 MARKING


25.1 A LiPo Battery shall be legibly and enduringly marked with:

 a) The battery manufacturer’s name, trade name, or trademark or other characteristic markings by which the company responsible for the product may be identified;

 b) A characteristic (catalog or model) number or the equivalent;

 c) The electrical rating in Vdc and Ah. (Secondary LiPo Battery may be marked in Wh rather than Ah);

 d) The date or another dating period of manufacture not exceeding any three consecutive months.


Exception No. 1: The battery manufacturer’s identification may be in a visible code if the product is identified by the brand or trademark owned by a private labeler.


Exception No. 2: The date of production may be abbreviated, or maybe in a nationally accepted conventional code or in a code declared by the battery manufacturer, provided that the code: 

a) It does not repeat in less than ten years.

b) It does not require reference to the production records of the battery manufacturer to determine when the product was produced.


25.2 When a battery manufacturer produces the LiPo Battery at more than one factory, each LiPo Battery shall have a distinctive marking to identify it as the product of an appropriate factory.


25.3 A LiPo Battery or the smallest unit package or directions provided with each battery shall include the following announcements or equivalent:

 a) An attention word, such as – Caution, Warning, or Danger.

 b) A brief description of possible hazards associated with the mishandling of the LiPo Battery, such as burn hazard, fire hazard, an explosion hazard.

 c) A list of actions to take to avoid possible hazards, such as do not crush, disassemble, dispose of in fire, or similar actions, and for primary LiPo Battery, do not charge.

 d) Education regarding replacement LiPo Battery if the batteries are replaceable by the user.


25.3.1 A LiPo Battery pack shall be marked with the following or equivalent: 

CAUTION: Risk of Fire and Burns. Do Not Open, Crush, Heat Above (battery manufacturer’s specified maximum temperature), or Incinerate. Follow Manufacturer’s Instructions ‖ This wording or equivalent shall also be included in the instructions packaged with the LiPo Battery pack.


Exception No. 1: A LiPo Battery pack not provided with an enclosure need not be marked but shall include the above wording or equivalent in the instructions supplied with the pack.


Exception No. 2: If space does not permit marking on the battery, the marking may be on the smallest unit package.


25.4 The battery manufacturer’s specified charging preparations shall be included for secondary LiPo Battery. Primary batteries shall consist of instructions indicating that the batteries shall not be charged.


25.5 A LiPo cell or battery that is less than 32 mm (1.25 inches) in diameter by 3.8 mm (0.15 inches) thick shall include the following marking or equivalent on the smallest unit package or instructions provided with each LiPo cell or battery: “Caution — Never put LiPo Battery in mouth. If swallowed, contact your physician or local poison control center.”


25.6 LiPo Battery, which meet the requirements of the Limited Power Source Test, Paragraph 13.4, may include the marking ” Limited Power Source‖ or ―LPS.”

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UL1642 Certification for LiPo Battery

UL1642 Certification for LiPo Battery

UL1642 Certification of LiPo Battery

What’s the UL1642 Certification of the LiPo Battery?

 


UL1642 Certification Scope

 

UL1642 certification requirements cover rechargeable LiPo batteries for use as a power supply in the products. These LiPo batteries contain metallic lithium, a lithium alloy. They may consist of a single electrochemical cell or two or more cells connected in parallels or series, or both, that convert chemical energy into electrical energy by an irreversible or reversible chemical reaction.

UL1642 certification requirements cover LiPo batteries intended for use in technician-replaceable or user-replaceable applications.

UL1642 certification requirements are made for avoiding the risk of fire or explosion when LiPo batteries are working in a product. The final acceptability of these LiPo batteries is dependent on their use in a complete product that complies with UL1642 certification applicable to such products.

UL1642 certification requirements are also intended for avoiding the risk of injury to persons due to fire or explosion when user-replaceable LiPo batteries are removed from a product and discarded.

UL1642 certification requirements cover technician-replaceable LiPo batteries that contain 5.0g or less of metallic lithium. A LiPo Battery containing more than 5.0g of lithium-ion is judged based on compliance with the requirements in this UL1642 standard, insofar as they are applicable, and further examination and test to determine whether the LiPo Battery is acceptable for its intended uses.

UL1642 certification requirements cover user-replaceable LiPo batteries that contain 4.0g or less of metallic lithium-ion with not more than 1.0g of metallic lithium in each electrochemical cell. A LiPo Battery is holding more than 4.0g or a cell containing more than 1.0g lithium-ion may require further examination and test to determine whether the cells or batteries are acceptable for their intended uses.

UL1642 certification requirements do not cover the toxicity risk that may result from the ingestion of a LiPo Battery or its contents, nor the risk of injury to persons that may occur if a LiPo Battery is cut open to provide access to the metallic lithium.

 

All Test Items of UL 1642 Certification

 

T.10 Short-Circuit Test

T.11 Abnormal Charging Test

T.13 CrushTest

T.14 ImpactTest

T.15 Shock Test

T.16 Vibration Test

T.17 Heating Test

T.18 Temperature Cycling Test

T.19 Low Pressure (Altitude Simulation) Test

T.20 Project Test

 

1. Description of the LiPo Battery

 

The tested sample of LiPo batteries is created with only one single LiPo Cell and doesn’t have any over current and short- circuits.

1) These tested LiPo Cells have not been evaluated in combination with charger or host products. Additional evaluation to determine compliance may be required on the combinations in the end product evaluation.

2) The tested LiPo Cells were evaluated for maximum voltage limit outlined and charge current and in the table below. The end product evaluation shall ensure that current and voltage limits noted are maintained. 

3) The tested LiPo Cell shall be fixed in a case with sufficient protective strength as a mechanical enclosure and fire enclosure. The end product shall keep away from fire and high-temperature areas. 

 

2. General of UL1642 Certification

 

2.1 Units of measurement

2.1 Terminology

2.3 Components

 

3. Glossary of UL1642 Certification

 

4. The General of UL1642 Certification

 

4.1.1

The casing of a LiPo Battery shall have the power and rigidity necessary to resist the abuses to which it may be subjected, without resulting in a risk of fire. The casing of a user-replaceable lithium battery shall have the strength and rigidity necessary to resist the abuses to which it may be subjected without resulting in a risk of injury to persons. 

4.1.2

A LiPo Cell of a user-replaceable battery shall be in a hard casing of adequate strength to prevent flexing. A tool providing the mechanical advantage of pliers, screwdriver, or hacksaw shall be the minimum capable of opening the user-replaceable cell casing if the opening of the housing will expose metallic lithium. 

4.2.1

A user-replaceable battery shall not contain pressurized vapor or liquid that could spray materials into the eyes or leak more than 5 milliliters of liquid when the battery casing is punctured under standard laboratory conditions, 23 ±2°C (73 ±3.6°F). 

4.3.1

A LiPo Battery shall be protected from abnormal charging currents during use. A LiPo Battery tested and found satisfactory for the charging current, IC, MOS, under fault conditions specified by the battery manufacturer. The LiPo Battery shall be protected from high charging currents in the end product application by two blocking parts, such as diodes, or one blocking parts, and one current limiting component, such as a resistor or a fuse.

The charging current limiting component shall limit the charging current to one-third of the value used in the abnormal charging test. 

 

5. The Performance of UL1642 Certification

 

5.1.1

Technician-replaceable LiPo Cells or LiPo batteries are to be tested as described in Sections 10 – 20. Section 12, forced-discharge test, applies only to cells intended to be used in series-connected multicell applications such as LiPo Battery packs. 

5.1.2

When a fire or explosion occurs as a result of the crash test, section 13, or the impact test, Section 14, or the LiPo Cell or LiPo Battery ruptures to the extent that the aluminum test cage is penetrated during the projectile test, section 20; the use of the technician replaceable cell or battery shall be restricted to applications in which it is not exposed to or is protected from, any conditions shown to cause a fire or explosion. 

5.1.3

LiPo Cells and LiPo batteries subjected to the shock test, section 15, vibration test, section 16, temperature cycling test, section 18, and low-pressure test, Section 19, shall also not leak or vent. For these tests, unacceptable leakage is determined to have happened when the resulting mass loss exceeds the values shown in table 5.1, venting, and leakage mass loss measures. 

5.2.1

The user-replaceable LiPo Cells or LiPo batteries are to be tested, as described in sections 10-20. Section 12, a forced discharge test, applies only to LiPo Cells intended to use in multicell applications such as LiPo Battery packs. In addition to complying with the requirements for a technician replaceable cell or battery as specified in 5.1.1, a user-replaceable cell or battery shall not explode or ignite when subjected to the crash test, section 13, or the impact test, section14. 

5.2.2

Sets of five specimens each are to be used for the projectile test, section 20.3; see table 6.3. When only one example from a collection of five does not comply with the requirements, another group of five samples is to be tested. All specimens from this second set shall comply with the requirements. 

5.3.1

A technician-replaceable or user-replaceable cell intended for use in multicell installations or LiPo Battery packs shall also be tested as described in 10.3 and section 12. No fire or explosion shall occur as a result of these tests. Besides, LiPo batteries subjected to the analysis described in 10.3 shall meet the requirements as described in 5.1.1 and 5.2.1 for a cell or battery subjected to the Short-Circuit Test, Section10. 

 

6. The Samples of UL1642 Certification

 

6.1

Fully charged primary LiPo Cells or LiPo batteries and primary LiPo Cells or LiPo batteries that have been practiced by partial or complete discharge, or both, are to be used to test described in sections 10-20. The number of samples to be used in each analysis for a primary technician-replaceable cell or battery is shown in table 6.1. The number of samples to be used in each analysis for a primary user-replaceable cell or battery is shown in table 6.3. When a group of LiPo Cells or LiPo batteries of different sizes, but similar chemistries are involved, selected sizes spokesperson of the range is to be tested.

6.2 

Fully charged secondary LiPo Cells or LiPo batteries and secondary LiPo Cells or LiPo batteries that have been conditioned by charge-discharge cycling are to be used for the tests described in sections 10-20. The number of samples to be used in each analysis for a secondary technician-replaceable cell or battery is shown in table 6.2. The number of samples to be used in each test for a secondary user-replaceable cell or battery is shown in table 6.4. When a group of LiPo Cells or LiPo batteries of different sizes, and similar chemistries is involved, selected sizes spokesperson of the range is to be tested.

6.3

Antecedent to conducting the testing in section 17, the LiPo Cell samples shall be pre-conditioned as outlined in 6.4 and 6.5.

6.4  

For the heating test of section 17, two sets of five LiPo Cell samples are to be fully discharged (i.e., to the manufacturer’s designated endpoint voltage). The samples are then placed in a test container and conditioned for 1 to 4 h (5 samples at the upper-temperature limit and five samples at the lower temperature limit of the operating range) as outlined in table 6.3.

6.5 

While the LiPo Battery is still in the test container. Charge them at the temperature limits (Five samples at the upper-temperature limit and five samples at lower temperature limit) at the designated maximum charging current and upper limit charging voltage per table 6.3, using a continuous voltage charging method. Charging is continued until the charge current reduces to the specified end of charge conditions.

 

7. Discharge Conditioning of LiPo Cells & Batteries

 

7.1

Primary LiPo batteries are to be fully discharged by connecting their terminals through resistors that provide the aspired level of discharge within 60 days. Ultimately released is estimated to be the state in which the closed-circuit voltage has been reduced to less than 0.2 volts, and the short-circuit current to less than 1.0 milliamperes. Discharging of LiPo batteries is at room temperature. LiPo Cells with a liquid cathode such as thionyl chloride or sulfur dioxide shall also be conditioned by one-half discharge.

7.2 

For solid electrolytes and other kinds of primary LiPo batteries that cannot be discharged within 60 days because of the small currents they genetically produce, longer working times plus discharge at higher temperatures may be used to obtain the desired level of release. The battery manufacturer’s recommended discharge procedures are to be followed to achieve the required discharge level in the shortest time.

7.3 

Secondary LiPo Cells are to be conditioned at 25°C (77°F). LiPo Cells are continuously cycled as per the battery manufacturer’s datasheets. The datasheet shall be such that the full rated capacity of the LiPo Cell is utilized, and the number of cycles accumulated shall be at least similar to 25 percent of the advanced cycle life of the LiPo Cell or cycled continuously for 90 days, whichever is shorter. Cycling is to be done either individually or in groups. LiPo Cells are to be recharged prior to testing, as indicated in table 6.2 and table 6.4.

 

8. Important Test Considerations of UL1642 Certification

 

8.1 

Some LiPo batteries are intelligent of exploding when the tests described in sections 10-20. Personnel must be protected from the flying fragments, explosive force, sudden release of heat, and noise that results from such explosions. The test area is to be well ventilated to protect personnel from possible dangerous fumes or gases.

8.2 

As an additional precaution, the temperatures on the surface of the LiPo Battery casings shall be monitored during the tests specified in sections 10, 12, 13, and 14. All personnel included in the testing of LiPo batteries are to be instructed never to approach a LiPo Battery while the surface temperature exceeds 90°C (194°F).

8.3 

For protection, the projectile test, section 20, is to be conducted in a room separate from the commentator.

 

9. Temperature Measurements of UL1642 Certification

9.1 

Temperatures are to be measured by thermocouples consisting of wires not larger than 24 AWG (0.21 mm2) and not smaller than 30 AWG (0.05 mm2) and a potentiometer type instrument.

9.2 

The temperature measurements on the LiPo batteries are to be made with the measuring junction of the thermocouple held tightly against the metal casing of the LiPo Battery.

  

10. Short-Circuit Test of UL1642 Certification

 

10.1 

Each test sample of LiPo batteries, in turn, is to be short-circuited by connecting the positive and negative terminals of the LiPo Battery with a circuit load having the highest resistance load of 0.1 ohms. The LiPo Battery is to discharge until a fire or explosion is obtained, or until it has reached a wholly removed state of fewer than 0.1 volts and the battery case temperature has returned to ±10°C (±18°F) of ambient temperature.

10.2 

Tests are to transfer to test at 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F) and 55 ±5°C (131 ±9°F). The LiPo batteries are to reach equilibrium at 20 ±5°C or 55 ±5°C, as applicable, before the terminals are connected.

10.3 

A LiPo Battery is to be tested individually unless the manufacturer designates that it is intended for use in series or parallel. For series or parallel LiPo Battery packs, additional tests on five sets of batteries are to be conducted using the maximum quantity of cells to be covered for each configuration.

10.4

When an overcurrent or thermal protective part that has been investigated for the design actuates during the test, the test shall be repeated with the battery supply connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective device to open. Protective equipment that has not been investigated for the purpose shall be short-circuited.

10.5 

The samples of LiPo batteries shall not explode or catch fire. The temperature of the exterior cell or battery casing shall not exceed 150°C (302°F).

 

11. Abnormal Charging Test of UL1642 Certification

 

11.1 

Primary LiPo Cells or batteries shall comply with 11.2-11.7.

11.2 

LiPo Cells or LiPo batteries conditioned following tables 6.1 or 6.3, as appropriate, are to be used for this test. The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

11.3 

Each test sample battery is to be subjected to a charging current of three times, specified by the manufacturer, by connecting it in opposition to a DC power supply. The specified charging current rate to be obtained by connecting a resistor of the specified size and rating in series with the battery. The best charging time is to be calculated using the formula: t𝑐=2.5C/3(l𝑐), t𝑐 is the charging time in an hour. C is the capacity of the cell/battery in ampere-hours. l𝑐 is the maximum charging current, in amperes, designated by the battery manufacturer. The minimum charging time is to be 7 hours.

11.4 

A non-resettable overcurrent or thermal protective parts that have been investigated for the purpose operates during the test. The test is to be repeated at a charge current below the level that the protective device operates. When resettable protective equipment works during the trial, the protector is allowed to reset to a total of 10 cycles; or until the appropriate charging time has been completed, but not less than 7 hours. A protective part that has not been investigated for the purpose is to be short-circuited.

11.5 

The samples of LiPo batteries shall not explode or catch fire.

11.6 

Secondary LiPo Cells or batteries shall comply with 11.7—11.10.

11.7 

LiPo Cells or batteries conditioned following tables 6.2 or 6.4, as applicable, are to be used for this test. The LiPo batteries are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

11.8 

Each test sample battery should be discharged at a constant current of 0.2c/hour, to a manufacturer defined discharge endpoint voltage. The LiPo Cell or battery is then to be charged with a continuous maximum specified output voltage and a current limit of three times the maximum charging current ”l,” determined by the manufacturer. Charging duration is to be 7 hours of the time required to reach the manufacturer’s specified end-of-charge condition, whichever is greater.

11.9 

The LiPo Cell or LiPo Battery is to be tested without the assistance of overcurrent or thermal protective parts unless such protective parts have been investigated for the purpose. When a non-resettable overcurrent or thermal protective device operates during the test, the test shall be repeated at an overcharging current below the level that the protection parts operate. When resettable protective equipment works during the trial, the protector is to be allowed to reset to a total of 10 cycles; or until the appropriate charging time has been completed, but not less than 7 hours. A protective device that has not been investigated for the purpose is to be short-circuited.

11.10  

The samples of LiPo Cells & LiPo batteries shall not explode or catch fire.

 

12. Forced-Discharged Test of UL1642

 

12.1 

This test is intended for LiPo Cells that are to be used in series-connected, multi-cell applications, such as LiPo Battery packs.

12.2 

A completely discharged cell is to be force-discharged by connecting it in series with fully charged cells of the same kind. The number of fully charged cells to connect in series with the discharged cell is to equal the maximum number less one of the cells to cover for series use. Five LiPo Cells are to be wholly discharged at room temperature.

12.3 

Once the completely discharged LiPo Cell is connected in series with the specified number of completely charged cells, and the resultant LiPo Battery pack is to be short-circuited.

12.4 

The positive and negative terminals of the LiPo Cells are to be connected with copper wire with a maximum resistance load of 0.1 ohms. The sample is to discharge until a fire or explosion is obtained, or until it has reached a wholly discharged state of fewer than 0.2 volts and the battery case temperature has returned to ±10°C (18°F) of ambient temperature.

12.5 

When an overcurrent or thermal protective parts that have investigated for the purpose operate during the test, the test shall be repeated with the battery supply connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective device to open. A piece of protective equipment that has not been investigated for the purpose shall be short-circuited.

12.6 

The samples of LiPo Cells & batteries shall not explode or catch fire.

 

13 Crush Test of UL1642 Certification

 

13.1 

A LiPo Battery is to be crushed between two flat surfaces. The force for the crushing is to be applied by a water-powered ram or a similar force mechanism. The flat surfaces are to be brought in contact with the cells, and the crushing is to be continued until an applied force of 13 ±1 kN (3000 ±224 lbs) is reached. Once the maximum effect has been obtained, it is to be released.

13.2 

A cylindrical, pouch, or prismatic LiPo Cell is to be crushed with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surfaces of the crushing equipment. A prismatic LiPo Cell is also to be rotated 90° around its longitudinal axis so that both the wide and narrow sides will be subjected to the crushing force. Each sample is to be subjected to a crushing strength in only one direction. Separate samples are to be used for each test. Exception: For lithium-ion systems, a cylindrical, pouch, or prismatic cell is to be crushed with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surface of the crushing apparatus. Each sample is to be subjected to a crushing force in only one direction. Test only the wide side of the pouch and prismatic LiPo Cells.

13.3 

A coin or button LiPo Battery is to be crushed with the flat surface of the battery parallel with the flat surfaces of the crushing apparatus.

13.4 

The samples LiPo Cells & LiPo batteries shall not explode or catch fire.

 

14 Impact Test of UL1642 Certification

 

14.1 

A test sample LiPo Battery is to be placed on a flat surface. A 15.8 ±0.1-mm (5/8 ±0.004-in) diameter bar is to be placed across the center of the sample. A 9.1 ±0.46-kg (20 ±1-lb) weight is to be dropped from a height of 610 ±25 mm (24 ±1 in) onto the battery sample.

14.2 

A cylindrical, pouch, or prismatic LiPo Cell is to be impacted with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surface and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the 15.8-mm (5/8-in) diameter curved surface lying across the center of the test sample. A prismatic LiPo Cell is also to be rotated 90° around its longitudinal axis so that both the wide and narrow sides are subjected to the impact. Each sample is to be subjected to only a single impression. Separate samples are to be used for each test. Exception: For Lithium-ion systems, a cylindrical, pouch, or prismatic cell is to be impacted with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surface and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the 15.8-mm (5/8-in) diameter bent surface lying across the center of the test sample. Each sample is to be subjected to only a single impact. Test only the wide side of the pouch and prismatic LiPo Cells.

14.3 

A coin or button LiPo Battery is to be impacted with the flat surface of the test sample parallel to the flat surface and the 15.8-mm (5/8-in) diameter bent surface lying across its center.

14.4 

The samples LiPo Cells & LiPo batteries shall not explode or catch fire.

 

15 Shock Test of UL1642 Certification

 

15.1 

The LiPo Cell is to be secured to the testing machine using a rigid mount that holds all mounting surfaces of the LiPo Cell. Each chamber shall be subjected to a total of three shocks of equal magnitude. The shocks are to be applied in each of three mutually perpendicular directions unless it has only two axes of symmetry, in which case only two courses shall be tested. Each shock is to be applied in a direction normal to the face of the cell. For each blow, the LiPo Cell is to be accelerated in such a manner that during the initial three milliseconds, the minimum average acceleration is 75 g (where g is the local acceleration due to gravity). The peak acceleration shall be between 125 and 175 g. Cells shall be tested at a temperature of 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F).

15.2 

The samples of LiPo batteries shall not explode or catch fire.

 

16 Vibration Test of UL1642 Certification

 

16.1 

A LiPo Battery is to be subjected to simple, harmonious motion with an amplitude of 0.8 mm (0.03 inch) [1.6 mm (0.06 inch) total maximum excursion].

16.2 

The incidence is to be varied at the rate of 1 hertz per minute between 10 and 55 hertz and return in not less than 90 nor more than 100 minutes. The LiPo Battery is tested in three respectively perpendicular directions. For a battery that has only two axes of symmetry, the LiPo Battery is to be tested perpendicular to each axis.

16.3 The samples of LiPo batteries shall not explode or catch fire.

  

17 Heating Test of UL1642 Certification

17.1 

A LiPo Battery is to be heated in gravity convection or circulating air oven with an initial temperature of 20 ±5°C (68±9°F). The temperature of the oven is to be raised at a rate of 5 ±2°C (9±3.6°F) per minute to a temperature of 130 ±2°C (266±3.6°F) and remain for 10 min. The LiPo Battery shall return to room temperature (20±5°C) and then test. For LiPo batteries specified for temperatures above 100°C (212°F), the conditioning temperature shall be increased from 130 ±2°C (266±3.6°F) to 30±2°C (86±3.6°F) above the manufacturers maximum specified temperature. For a battery of lithium metal chemistry, the conditioning temperature shall increase to a maximum of 170 ±2°C (338±3.6°F).

17.2 

The samples LiPo Cells and batteries shall not explode or catch fire.

 

18 Temperature Cycling Test of UL1642 Certification

18.1 

The LiPo batteries are to be placed in a test container and subjected to the following cycles: Raising the chamber-temperature to 70 ±3°C (158 ±5°F) within 30 minutes and keeping this temperature for 4 hours. Reducing the chamber temperature to 20 ±3°C (68 ±5°F) within 30 minutes and keeping this temperature for 2 hours. Reducing the chamber temperature to minus 40 ±3°C (minus 40 ±5°F) within 30 minutes and keeping this temperature for 4 hours and raising the chamber temperature to 20 ±3°C (68 ±5°F) within 30 minutes and reconstructing the sequence for a further nine cycles and after the 10th cycle, storing the batteries for a minimum of 24 hours, at a temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F) prior to examination.

18.2 

The samples shall not explode or catch fire.

 

19 Low Pressure (Altitude Simulation) Test of UL1642 Certification

19.1 

LiPo batteries are stored for 6 hours at an absolute pressure of 11.6 kPa (1.68 psi) and a temperature of 20 ± 3°C (68 ± 5°F).

19.2 

The LiPo Battery shall not explode or catch fire as a result of the Altitude Simulation Test.

 

MARKING

The battery manufacturer should mark LiPo Battery legibly and lastingly with:

a) The name, trade name, or trademark or another descriptive of the manufacturer naming by which the organization responsible for the product may be identified;

b) A distinctive part number or the equivalent;

c) The date code or another dating period of manufacture not exceeding any three consecutive months. If a manufacturer produces a battery at more than one factory, each battery-package shall have a characteristic marking to identify it as the product of a particular factory.

 

Critical Components

Material: e.g., external enclosure, PCB, closed-end connector, sleeves, cord anchorage, etc. Elements with winding: e.g., motor, transformer, magnetic coil, etc.

Other components: e.g., switch, thermostat, heater, plug, internal wire, capacitor, relay, varistor, etc.

 

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